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The role of defence R&D in innovation systems : Innomil exploration
The work by Bonaccorsi on search regimes and the existence of simultaneous different knowledge dynamics converged with work on technological systems or sectoral systems of innovation reasoning drove to consider the existence of different sectoral dynamics. It was not the intention of PRIME to support sector focus developments. What was at stake was to see how R&I policies could take into account the simultaneous existence of different dynamics and potential divergent needs for policy interventions. This was addressed at the same time Europeanisation processes were (see ERA dynamics initiative). However there was one situation, very important in large OECD countries that remained puzzling. This is why PRIME supported a limited group of scholars within PRIME willing to address the changes in the articulation between military and civil R&D. Since the work of the 1980s (in particular Made in America) which highlighted the negative effects on civil innovation of a large presence of military R&D, no work had revisited the issue, apart from the highly discussed notion of “dual use technologies”. We thus supported an initial effort to articulate both communities (defence scholars and innovation systems scholars). De facto three successive workshops were needed before a project could emerge (see FP7 Sandera project 2009-2011, www.sandera.net). These workshops were based on a systematic review of state of the art work and of empirical developments. They have proven academically productive, giving rise to a special issue of the Journal of Technology Transfer (2009) and to a extensive book due to be published in the Autumn 2010 (Edward Elgar, Prime collection). 

Special Issue : Reevaluating the Role of Defense and Security R&D in the Innovation System
(vol 34, n°5)
Introduction by the guest editor, Andrew D. James 449-454

National security and national innovation systems
David C. Mowery 455-473

Industry relationships of DoD-funded academics and institutional changes in the US university system
Dirk Libaers 474-489

Between market forces and knowledge based motives : the governance of defence innovation in the UK
Arman Avadikyan and Patrick Cohendet, 490-504

Organisational change and innovation system dynamics : the reform of the UK government defence research establishments
Andrew D. James, 505-523
Julie

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