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Knowledge circulation and the role of IPR : results from the CIPR exploration
A review of the wealth of on-going work on IPR identified collective dimensions in IPR as a major still underexplored issue, at a time where nelson was publishing his famous article on scientific commons. This also took into consideration the emergence of targeted settings in connection with EPO, in particular the EPIP project and then association (see for instance its 2010 annual conference). Our analysis was that an important theme articulated to public sector research, that is intellectual property generated by academic research, raised specific issues. It was addressed through the CIPR project. Two important outcomes derive from the project. One deals with the organisational handling of publicly based IPR remobilised in other research projects (see article on the collective management of IPR – Menière et al. - or the position paper in favour of the mutualisation of genomics research in agriculture - Joly, Hervieu and Menière, 2006). The other one deals with ontological assumptions in IPR (Bonaccorsi, Calvert & Joly, 2010) : Colleagues looking at patents have shown that an ontology only based on a one to one relation between an artefact (or a gene) and a function can no longer be generalised. This raises questions about the design of the IPR system and enables to better understand the apparently contradictory calls by different experts (reinforcement vs lessening). This also calls the attention on different appropriation mechanisms when IP is individual or distributed, on the very different collective issues associated to both situations, and on, probably, the very different solutions to cope for these issues.

Main results
Bonaccorsi A., Calvert J., Joly P.B. (2010) From protecting texts to protecting objects in biotechnology and software. A tale of changes of ontological assumptions in intellectual property protection. Forthcoming, Economy and Society.
Dequiedt V., Ménière Y., Trommetter M. (2008) Collective Management of Intellectual Property Rights
Joly P-B., Hervieu B., Ménière Y . (2006) For a mutualisation of genomic research for agriculture
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